This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student’s socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology Literacy (ST2L), a performance-based assessment of ICT literacy skills based on the 2008 National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS∙S). Results show a digital divide between low and high SES, white and non-white, and female and male students on all measures of the ST2L. Specifically, high-SES, white, and female students outperformed their counterparts. The results provide compelling evidence of a digital divide within Florida schools. The article discusses the implications of the findings for practice and future research.

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Ritzhaupt, A. D., Liu, F., Dawson, K., & Barron, A. E. (2013). Differences in student information and communication technology literacy based on socio-economic status, ethnicity, and gender: Evidence of a digital divide in Florida schools. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 45(4), 291–307.